In both letters to the church at Corinth but especially in 2 Corinthians, Paul gives a powerful example of what it means to lead the body of Christ. In place of the genius and hero that the Corinthians were seeking, Christ sent them Paul, the suffering apostle, in whom he himself is present as the crucified and risen Lord (13:3). But where Jews are tempted to abandon their cultural identity, there can hardly be much pressure on Gentiles to become circumcised. Throughout the Old Testament we see an ever-heightening anticipation of the coming Messiah—a Davidic king who was expected to wipe out God’s enemies once and for all, restore God’s people, and reign forevermore (2 Sam. Paul likewise connects the Corinthian demand for letters attesting the validity of an apostle to God’s written address to Israel (and therewith to all humanity) in the written code of the Law. 14:6). In the face of the seriousness of this situation, Paul cancelled a promised visit to Corinth, not wanting to bring about another unhappy and unsuccessful confrontation like the one he had just experienced (2 Cor 1:23-2:4). The letter of 2 Corinthians provides rich comfort and hope for believers today around the world. Second Corinthians tells us that comfort comes through affliction (2 Cor. At least for the moment, the church had been reconciled to the apostle. This is the central message of 2 Corinthians. Paul does not require credentials ( 2 Cor 3:1-3; 1 Cor 4:1-5). But we gain no real knowledge about their message or the problem that Paul addresses in Corinth from this background. The question at stake here is the legitimation of an apostle, and not merely any apostle, but the legitimation of Paul as apostle to the Corinthians.2 Precisely in its particularity, 2 Corinthians speaks to the present, and it does so profoundly. In 2 Corinthians 5:19, Paul says that God “has committed to us the message of reconciliation.” You know what it’s like when someone calls and leaves a message. It encourages those who are struggling while cautioning those whose lives may be outwardly impressive. Above all, Christian leaders are to do what Christ himself did: pour out their lives in self-giving love for the sake of others. It is this paradox that is offensive to the Corinthians. We have noted the way in which Paul structures the letter around his grief over the Corinthians and his relief over Titus’s fruitful mission there (1:23-2:17; 7:5-16). The life of the apostle is the life of the Christian written large. He had made an emergency visit to Corinth, in which an individual within the church had openly resisted his apostolic authority, and had received at least tacit support from the church itself. The letter of 2 Corinthians is important, Paul Barnett believes, for its magnificent message that God's power is brought to people in their weakness, not in human strength. “If we are afflicted, it is for your comfort and salvation” (1:6). Mingled in with these hope-filled prophecies, however, are perplexing predictions of a coming one who would suffer on behalf of God’s people (Psalm 22; Isa. 7:13–14; Zech. Their words were his words. It is the minds and hearts of the Corinthians for which Paul battles. Chapter#2. It is not for some regions of the world but not for others. The Corinthians have become short-sighted, judging things by the mere appearances and false standards of the present world (5:12, 10:7). Paul then begins to speak about himself directly, first in relationship to God and the message of the Gospel that he bears as an apostle of Christ (4:1-5:10), and then as God’s agent with respect to the Corinthians (5:11-21). Apostolic existence is Christian existence as large-screen video, set before the eyes of the world, the angels, and all human beings (1 Cor 4:9). But it was already incipiently present when Paul wrote 1 Corinthians, and appears there as the weightiest problem with which Paul had to deal in this troubled church. Second Corinthians reminds us that even as Christians, we hurt each other and need to forgive those who wrong us (2 Corinthians 2:7). Even more so, his open appeal to his weakness, which does not appear expressis verbis in 2 Corinthians 1-7, serves as an obvious complement to the argument there (11:21, 29-30; 12:5, 9-10; 13:3-4, 9). 5-8 Now, regarding the one who started all this—the person in question who caused all this pain—I want you to know that I am not the one injured in this as much as, with a few exceptions, all of you. God himself is both.6 They themselves will be called to account for their reception or rejection of the apostle. Very few have been called to bear the hardships that Paul bore. The result is that believers all over the world are not required to qualify themselves with any kind of moral goodness or education or family background or anything else they might bring to the table. Second Corinthians is intensely so. Paul speaks to the Corinthians in the presence of God (2:17). Hello, Sign in. The apostle lives a life of suffering and deliverance, being thrust into difficulties beyond his powers in order to be delivered by the power of God. This emphasis on the work of the Spirit is bound up with the profoundly material  hermeneutic that Paul sets forth in the chapter. It may be prompted in part by the charge of his adversaries (10:10), but it also sums up the apostolic existence that Paul describes in the earlier chapters (see esp. His calling as apostle cannot be separated from his person. God has the first word as well as the last. They think he can give them what they want, and that they won’t have to bother believing a Truth they can’t see. They seem to have made their way to Corinth after the resolution of the recent crisis, but it is not impossible that they were there already, and were able to establish their claims within the church after the local, Corinthian leader who had offended Paul had been removed. First Corinthians was not his first letter to Corinth, of course (see 1 Cor 5:9). The Theology and Message of 2 Corinthians. I Corinthians. This momentous theme emerges in a dramatic real-life situation. The body of the letter concludes with a direct appeal to the Corinthians (6:1-7:16). Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for The Message of 2 Corinthians by Barnett Paul 9781789741520 | at the best online prices at eBay! This momentous theme emerges in a dramatic real-life situation. As the Corinthians themselves recognize, the marks of an apostle are the marks of a Christian. At the same time, it is necessary for Paul to counter criticisms about his personality and legitimacy. He will not lord over the Corinthians: in their faith, they stand and thus are his equals (1:24). As the apostle of Christ, Paul bears the presence of Christ within the world in special measure. Paul opens his argument by appealing to the Corinthians on the basis of “the meekness and gentleness of Christ” (10:1). The claim to be “of Christ” likely signifies a direct, visionary knowledge of the risen Lord, and anticipates the challenges to Paul’s apostolic authority that arose first within the church (2 Cor 1:23-2:11) and then from without (2 Cor 10:1-12:13). The Second Epistle to the Corinthians, commonly referred to as Second Corinthians or in writing 2 Corinthians, is a Pauline epistle of the New Testament of the Christian Bible.The epistle is attributed to Paul the Apostle and a co-author named Timothy, and is addressed to the church in Corinth and Christians in the surrounding province of Achaea, in modern-day Greece. The communication of life within death, power within weakness, wealth within poverty, and so on, is alien to their thinking, as it is to ours as well. 1:3–7), sufficiency through insufficiency (3:1–6), life through death (4:7–15), blessing through suffering (6:3–10), salvation through grief (7:2–10), abundance through poverty (8:1–2, 9, 14), and boasting through hardship (11:16–30). In the most important respect, the opponents of Paul in Corinth were unique. Paul defends his integrity. The letter of 2 Corinthians reveals a powerful debate between the apostle Paul and a shadowy group of opponents, along with the local church members who supported them. Paul speaks of “the letter” and “the Spirit” rather than “the Law” and “Christ,” and of “the sons of Israel” rather than of “Jews” or “circumcision.” He does not appeal to his readers to reject Judaizing nor does he attack his opponents in this chapter. The Message of 2 Corinthians – Barnett. It is no wonder, then, that travelling preachers found their way there. I think that if anything, 2 Corinthians was written on purpose in parallel to what the world would be like one day. CHAPTER WISE SUMMARY: Chapter#1. As is always the case, we have to read it off of what Paul says about them in the letter. When Paul explained this motivation to the Corinthians, he wanted them to not be ashamed of either him or the message of reconciliation that brings life to those who embrace it (2 Corinthians 5:11–15). About the Author Barnett (Ph.D., London University), was until his retirement Anglican bishop of North Sydney, Australia. Encontre diversos livros escritos por Barnett, Paul W … Category: New Testament Commentaries Product ID: 2294. Paul likewise interjects a defense of his apostolic calling into his discussion of idol-meats: he cannot appeal to his example in service to the Corinthians, without their understanding the freedom he exercises as apostle in refusing to accept funds from them (1 Cor 9:1-27). 2 Corinthians reminds me a lot of where we are today. Reviews (0) Reviews There are no reviews yet. Just as Jesus was crucified on a Roman cross, God leads the apostle to death in a Roman triumph, so that the knowledge of Christ might be manifest everywhere (2:14-17). It is the apostolic pretenders who operate otherwise, and abuse the Corinthians (11:20-21). 6:12–13). Contrary to the way the world and our own human hearts naturally function, God takes what is low, despised, and weak to accomplish his purposes. Second Corinthians returns to similar themes as those Paul mentioned in his first letter to this church. Answer: The ministry of reconciliation in 2 Corinthians 5:18 refers to the work believers have been given to do and the message they declare: you can have a restored relationship with God through Jesus. That is precisely what is necessary for their salvation. That person is a new creation. See Ernst Käsemann. 2 Corinthians 4 MSG - Trial and Torture - Since God has so - Bible Gateway. Paul is glad to hear that the church in Corinth has heeded his advice. The Corinthians were not only in the world but also of it, whereas Christ calls believers to be in the world but not of it (John 17:14–19). Secondly, in their self-satisfaction and assumed role as judges of the apostle, the Corinthians have turned the gift of salvation into a benefit and possession. But they thereby overlook the nature of God’s saving work. As believers face divisions across the global church as well as broken relationships closer to home, Paul’s gentle exhortations to pursue restoration when possible are words worth remembering. Broken and sinful congregation of people who don’t really want to listen to anyone. Now is the time to forgive this man and help him back on his feet. It is for this reason that Paul already announces in 1 Corinthians that the Gospel is “the word of the cross” and that he proclaims and will know nothing other than Christ crucified (1 Cor 1:8, 23; 2:2). The false judgment in which the Corinthians remained trapped has at least two dimensions. His word is always a “word on target,” intended to address the needs of his readers at times in which he himself cannot be present with them.1 All of Paul’s letters are likewise personal. Our fundamental problem is that we cannot see or understand ourselves or God rightly.  Our salvation entails our coming to the truth about ourselves and about God. 1:10). The letter of 2 Corinthians is important, Paul Barnett believes, for its magnificent message that God's power is brought to people in their weakness, not in human strength. They claimed to be apostles of the risen Christ. Although he speaks of Christ in this chapter (3:14), he describes salvation primarily in terms of the work of the Spirit, filling in the “christological gap” only in 5:21. But they imagine that the presence of the risen Lord brings with it the charisma and power that they find in the other apostolic claimants, and seems to be missing in Paul. Just the opposite. 2:5–11) as well as with Paul himself (7:2–16). As a prosperous center of travel and trade, Corinth was also a stopping-off point for early Christian missions, as is evident from the factions in Corinth that Paul mentions in 1 Corinthians (cf. It is this hermeneutical dimension of God’s saving work that Paul sets before the Corinthians in 2 Corinthians 3. Throughout the letter Paul turns upside down our natural expectations of the way life works. It is this situation to which Paul responds in 2 Corinthians. He is not going to be judged finally by the Corinthians, but by the Lord. Throughout the letter Paul turns upside down our natural expectations of the way life works. At the pinnacle of world history, God brought about his long-promised restoration through the suffering of his own Son. It is hardly likely that Paul holds back from challenging a theology that they offered. The comfort that the apostle received in his affliction has been passed on through his word to countless others through the centuries, and still comes to us through him even now. Add to cart. The proof of apostolic ministry does not lie in any letter that Paul might bring. In any case, the relationship between the apostle and the Corinthians remained fragile, despite their recent reconciliation. Judged by the world’s standards of influence, the church seems powerless at such times. Christians around the globe today are called to live in faithful presence among their unbelieving neighbors, influencing them with the love of Christ rather than being infected by worldly patterns of thinking ( Rom. Free shipping for many products! It liberates all those called to ministry from introspection concerning their weaknesses or fear of human judgments. Paul has spoken of himself frequently in the body of the letter already. The two final units of the letter serve as the hortatory conclusion to Paul’s argument (8:1-9:15; 10:1-13:14). It is not too likely that it now was ready to return there. The form of Christ’s saving presence within the world is being tested in him. (2 Corinthians 5:10) And Paul says, "be reconciled to God." At the very beginning of its existence, the church had experienced a violent expulsion from the synagogue (Acts 18:1-17). Frete GRÁTIS em milhares de produtos com o Amazon Prime. In many places today the church is publicly marginalized because it is seen as silly, or it is persecuted because it is seen as threatening, or it is simply ignored because it is seen as irrelevant. So I don’t want to come down too hard. As the apostle of Christ, in suffering and deliverance, Paul offers true comfort to all of us. They are not the final audience and judge. His authentication rests in those to whom he has been sent and in their faith (2 Cor 3:1). All rights reserved. He is their boast, just as they are his in the day of the Lord (, As apostle to the Corinthians, Paul teaches them and through them all of us a basic truth of the Christian life. The appeal to the Corinthians to separate themselves from unbelievers, which appears here, is most likely directed to their relationship with the apostolic claimants (6:14-18). 13:4) so that weak sinners can know true strength, by his grace. Paul’s second letter to the Corinthians unlocks one of the great secrets of Christian life and ministry to believers all around the globe: God’s power is channeled through human weakness. It teaches us the fear of God. Paul must remind them again in 2 Corinthians that this present body and life are a mere tent and pilgrimage to an eternal house and home, a body and life of a different order, in which the mortal will be “swallowed up by life” (5:4). Our understanding God and ourselves does not take place through our own reason and understanding, or by any bare rules of interpretation. The whole of 2 Corinthians is thus centered on the legitimation of Paul as apostle to the Corinthians, in the face of the challengers who offer their outward and visible powers (together, most likely, with letters of commendation) as proof of their apostolic authority. We refuse to wear masks and play games. Precisely in the midst of the direst difficulties he speaks, because he has been given the Spirit of faith (, The Message of Second Corinthians: 2 Corinthians as the Legitimation of the Apostle. Paul has introduced the Corinthians to this matter already in 1 Corinthians. Mark Seifrid is Professor of Exegetical Theology, Concordia Seminary in St. Louis. The purpose and intent of that ministry was to bring death and condemnation, so that Christ might bring life and righteousness. In those places around the world today where statistics would seem to indicate that the church is healthy, such health may be hollow. He instead sent Titus as his emissary in an attempt to resolve the situation. Copyright © 2021, Southern Equip. In the end, however, they are not in a position to interpret and judge the apostle or the Gospel that he bears. In 2 Corinthians, Paul seeks to build upon that success in the face of the fresh challenge that had come from outsiders who had made their way to Corinth and presented apostolic claims. In Christ it is revealed that “the old covenant” has been done away (3:14). God will accomplish his work in the world, whether “by many or by few” (1 Sam. KShs 600.00. Chapter 12 then gives the key principle: God’s “power is made perfect in weakness” (12:9). The question of Gentile circumcision arises only once in the Corinthian correspondence, and appears as the counterpart to Paul’s urging circumcised Jews not to undergo epispasm (1 Cor 7:18). 4:10–12). Every apostle is of Christ, by definition (2 Cor 10:7; cf. At the point of the Gospel and God’s saving work in Christ, human reasoning must submit. Rather, all it takes to qualify for God’s favor is to acknowledge that one does not qualify—and then look to Christ. Just as Paul earlier had to remind the Corinthians that the “manifestations of the Spirit” (πνευματικά) are “spiritual gifts” (χαρίσματα), and not mere personal powers (1 Cor 12:1-11), so in 2 Corinthians he repeatedly reminds them that their salvation is bound up with him and the message that he bears as their apostle. His ironic appeal to be bold while he is absent (10:2), together with his following request to speak “as a fool” (11:1, 16), implies the impropriety of his forced “self-commendation” and thus presupposes the argument of the preceding chapters. Nevertheless, there are clear indications that all is not well in the relationship between the apostle and the church, from his explanation for his failure to visit Corinth (1:15-2:4), to his appeal to them to be reconciled to God—and to him (6:1-7:1; 7:2-4).4 Paul’s tone does not change entirely in 2 Corinthians 10-13, and is in fact correlated to the argument of 2 Corinthians 1-7. 2 Corinthians 5 For instance, we know that when these bodies of ours are taken down like tents and folded away, they will be replaced by resurrection bodies in heaven - God-made, not handmade - and we'll never have to relocate our "tents" again. Only to those who are “being saved”—those who believe—is Christ the wisdom of God (1 Cor 1:23-25). Corinthians-2 is Paul’s defense of his character and his message to keep the Corinthians from following these false apostles in their heresies. In a tangible way, the collection serves this end, just as their completion of it entails submission to the apostle. Paul’s Plan to Come to Corinth. The ministry of Moses, who delivered the written commands of God (“the letter”) was necessary to the ministry of the apostle, through which the Spirit of God is given.  Paul’s words in 2 Corinthians 3:6 might well be translated:  “The letter kills and the Spirit gives life.” Life is given to us only through death, righteousness only through condemnation. Reconciliation. The body of the letter serves as a preparation for the bold assault on the opponents and equally sharp words he has for the Corinthians in these chapters. It is there, in the midst of death and condemnation, that God has established in Christ communication between himself and the human being: “He made him, who knew no sin to be sin, in order that we might become the righteousness of God in him” (2 Cor 5:21). Paul’s entire message to the Corinthians is bound up with this truth. Sometimes we can ... Read verse in The Message … Likewise, it makes good sense rhetorically for Paul to capitalize on the recent victory that had been won in Titus’s visit to Corinth. We know very little of the theology of these new opponents of Paul at Corinth. God’s way of measuring success and significance is entirely different than the world’s way. Without the background of the argument of 2 Corinthians 1-7, in which Paul presents the life of an apostle as one of suffering and deliverance, his words in 2 Corinthians 10-13 would likely fall on deaf ears. This is hope-giving, but also humbling. Käsemann’s interpretation of the final chapters applies to the letter as a whole. It concludes with a reference to Paul’s dispatching Timothy to Corinth as well as his own subsequent arrival there (1 Cor 4:14-21). The first section of the body of 1 Corinthians, with its appeal to “the word of the cross” as the apostolic message (1 Cor 1:18-2:16), is itself a definition apostolic authority and a defense of the apostolic mission in Corinth. It is this very comfort that is communicated through him to others, including the Corinthians, who themselves share in sufferings—if they are indeed Christians (1:6-7). That glory is God’s power revealed in weakness, God’s righteousness revealed in sin, life revealed in death itself. Yet as God’s suffering servant he allowed himself to be treated as one who was disqualified. Servant leadership is not optional for the global church. Question: "What is the ministry of reconciliation in 2 Corinthians 5:18?" Strength in weakness. 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