200 km of ocean. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information. This species is commonly collected in nearshore waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes, usually along margins of coastal wetlands, beaches, drowned river mouth lakes, and slow-moving streams. Identification: Becker (1983); Smith (1985); Page and Burr (1991); Jenkins and … population of the banded killifish, there was little other fish diversity present. Status: Special Concern. KILLIFISH FUNDULUS DIAPHANUS POPULATION EXPLOSION: WHERE DID THEY ALL COME FROM? They are a pale cream in colour with an iridescent silvery blue band running along the flanks, this band is more marked towards the tail. There are vertical blackish and silver-white stripes along the sides. [4][1] The females tend to grow larger than the males. The banded killifish (Fundulus diaphanus) is a North American species of temperate freshwater killifish belonging to the genus Fundulus of the family Fundulidae. In order to achieve this, banded killifish have shown the ability to discriminate between individuals within the species. 161-212 in C.H. (First record was technically Davenport, Iowa. Fishes of Wisconsin. [7] The eastern subspecies is larger.[8]. Intergradation between F. d. menona and the eastern banded killifish, F. d. diaphanus, may occur if the latter continues its westward range expansion in the Lake Erie basin. The majority of these populations are clustered on the south and southwest coasts, with an outlier population in the Indian Bay watershed in the northeast (Chippett, 2003). These individuals are identified as the Western subspecies. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Over the past several years, there have been multiple arti-cles in American Currents covering their distribution (Hatch 2015; Schmidt … Keys to Oregon freshwater fishes. It comes in a variety of vibrant colors and distinctively drawn body pattern. [17], When choosing which shoals to join, banded killifish often choose to join ones that consist of others with similar phenotypes. Do not add new species such as Banded Killifish. Its preferred habitat is the shallow waters of glacial lakes and ponds with lots of aquatic vegetation. I suspect that we stumbled upon a population that ODNR doesn't know about. Purely happenstance, Mike stumbled on to another population, and of all places, in a drainage ditch, and he sent specimens to Jeremy. Frightened fish in the presence of a predatory stimulus will hide in a foodless refuge. Doctoral dissertation. COSEWIC Reason for Designation: The mainland population of the species is widespread in eastern Canada, and not in decline. population structure and some growth properties12-15, reproductive biology16-18, genetic diversity5,19,20, distribution and threats21-23 to A. fasciatus have been investigated by several authors. 1938. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. Spawning occurs at water temperatures of 21˚ C to 23˚ C. The male chooses a site in the shallow part of the water and protects it from other males. If NatureServe knows they are there, it seems reasonable to think that ODNR does also. This preference is maintained by predatory threat. There are seven documented populations of banded killifish on the island of Newfoundland (Fig. A population of Banded Killifish was discovered in 2002 in the Grand Bay West area (First Pond) in western Newfoundland near Port aux Basques (Mann and Nambudiri 2005) and populations have also been reported in the Exploits watershed (Star Lake) and in a lagoon near York Harbour in the Bay of Islands (Chippett 2004). It has a flat head and an upward-pointing mouth. Hocutt, C.H., R.E. In both the presence and absence of predatory stimuli, banded killifish feeding rate for individuals is independent of shoal size. This species is represented by two subspecies. American Currents 1994(Summer):16-18. There was also a translocation experiment by the Forest Preserve District of DuPage County into the DuPage River that does not appear to have succeeded. Identification. † Populations may not be currently present. 1981. Its natural geographic range extends from Newfoundland to South Carolina, and west to Minnesota, including the Great Lakes drainages. It does not have a lateral line along the side but does have 39 to 43 cycloid scales in the lateral series.[6]. Least … In Pennsylvania, known from the Ohio and Beaver drainages and established in the Youghiogheny. The average banded killifish ranges from 10 to 13 cm in length and weighs a few grams. River flows during the spring spawning season have become less predictable over recent decades, and this has … eastern banded killifish, western banded killifish. The Peterson Field Guide Series, volume 42. They develop a bright blue patch near the anal fin. Size is a sorting mechanism for conspecific as opposed to heterospecific shoaling.[21]. From there the population expanded through the Chicago Area Waterway System into the Des Plaines River and … Banded killifish (Fundulus diaphanus) were presented individually with a choice of shoaling with either of two stimulus shoals which differed in shoal size, species composition, and fish body size, before and after a simulated avian predator attack.When threatened, test fish preferred to shoal with the larger of two conspecific shoals, but only if members of both stimulus shoals were of the same size class as … This contrast is likely to make the shoal stand out and gain the predator's attention. Home › Отдых за границей › banded killifish reproduction. (2019). Burr. This is relatively small species and the fish grows till 1-1.5 inches in length. The population in the Illinois River near the mouth of the Fox River was maintaining itself and even spreading downstream. The species is ranked as secure globally (G5) and nationally (N5 in Canada and the United States). Banded killifish are euryhaline, but they usually inhabit freshwater streams and lakes. Intergrades occur in the Saint Lawrence and Lake Erie drainages. 1994. There are 13–15 rays on a banded killifish's dorsal fin and 10–12 on the anal fin. Similar to mummichog, but with a more slender caudal peduncle and body and the dorsal fin is set farther forward (distance from first dorsal ray to beginning of tail fin about equal to distance from first dorsal ray to middle of eye). Banded killifish; Conservation status . [19], Shoaling preferences in banded killifish differ in shoal species composition, shoal size, and individual body size within the shoal. Page, Lawrence M. and Brooks M. Burr (1991), Chippett, Jamie D. 2003. If NatureServe knows they are there, it seems reasonable to think that ODNR does also. The body is light olive on the back and sides and y… In a larger group, there is a larger chance that a predator will attack a different shoalmate than it will attack the individual of interest. ORIGINS West Africa, occurring in coastal parts of Nigeria, Benin, and Togo. Banded Killifish (Fundulus diaphanus) - Native. Spawning occurs from June to mid-August in shallow waters. The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. Population Sizes and Trends . When in the presence of both stimuli, the group size is intermediate. Banded killifish around the island of Newfoundland are at the eastern-most extent of their range. Lateral-line scales greater … A population is also present in Burton's Pond on the St. John's campus of … Food-deprived individuals spent more time by themselves and not in shoals. They are often found in shallow, quiet areas of clear lakes and ponds over sand, gravel or bottoms having an abundance of aquatic vegetation. Accessed [1/1/2021]. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. The species was introduced into other areas through unknown means; possibly bait bucket releases. Newfoundland populations have a very limited area of occupancy. The Indian Bay population … Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. Becker (1983); Smith (1985); Page and Burr (1991); Jenkins and Burkhead (1994). • Banded lampeye • Blue panchax • Delta killifish • Desert pupfish • Japanese rice fish. Streamlined shape. Both parasitized and unparasitized individuals preferred to join unparasitized shoals. In a group, each individual can spend less time looking out for predators because others in the shoal can share in this responsibility. One lake in South Dakota was stocked accidentally with largemouth bass (Bailey and Allum 1962). Becker, G.C. Be careful not to pollute ponds, rivers, … Banded Killifish populations in Newfoundland appear to be locally abundant in representative populations that were sampled. [11] [4], There are two subspecies, the eastern banded killifish Fundulus diaphanus diaphanus and the western banded killifish Fundulus diaphanus menona. Collection Info Point Map Species Profile Animated Map. With their tall dorsal fin, the males of this species are exceptionally eye-catching. If body size is similar, then banded killifish prefer conspecific shoals as opposed to heterospecific ones. Banded Killifish (Newfoundland populations) is listed as Special Concern under Canada's Species at Risk Act and as Vulnerable under Newfoundland and Labrador's Endangered Species Act. Banded killifish are schooling fish, usually traveling in groups of 3–6 individuals, while the juveniles travel in groups of 8–12. The dorsal fin is far posterior on the back, originating in front of the anal fin, and has 10 to 13 rays. [3], The common name, "banded killifish", commonly refers to the distinct black and white vertical bandings found along their sides. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Fundulus diaphanus are found here. [14] Lone individuals incur additional cost because they do not gain the improved predatory protection granted by shoal formation, and thus will attempt to join larger shoals rather than smaller shoals. Banded killifish distinguish individuals by body coloration phenotype. There are currently 10 known documented populations of banded killifish on the island of Newfoundland: Indian Bay Watershed, Garnish Pond, Freshwater Pond, Winterland, Ramea Island, Grand Bay West, Loch Leven, Stephenville Crossing, St. George’s, York Harbour. The eggs hatch in 11-12 days. [10], The nutritional state of banded killifish influences individual's decisions to shoal or not. Body size is a more significant determinant of shoaling preference than shoal size and species composition. 161-212, National Wildlife Refuge System Invasive Species, US Fish and Wildlife Service Ecological Risk Screening Summary for. 1979. Due to biogeographical isolation and limitation of potential for range expansion, banded killifish species were assigned a status of special concern by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). [20] In the presence of predatory stimuli, a banded killifish individual will prefer the bigger conspecific shoal, but only as long as the shoal is homogenous in individual fish size. Oregon State University Bookstores, Corvallis, OR. Shoaling can be understood through a cost and benefit analysis. Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Cyprinodontiformes (Rivulines, killifishes and live … Jenkins, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1986. Identification. It is unknown where the Banded Killifish in the Mississippi River originated, possibly from populations 160+ kilometers upstream or human introductions. [4] When a female appears, the male will court the female and fight with the other prospecting males. Banded Killifish were recorded for the first time in the Illinois portion of the Mississippi in 2007. In the presence of a food stimulus, group size decreases, so that each individual does not have to compete with others for access to these resources. Globally, the Banded Killifish is found in eastern North America from southeastern Manitoba, south through the Dakotas … 1991. One lake in South Dakota was stocked accidentally with largemouth bass (Bailey and Allum 1962). The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Banded Killifish – Aphyosemion bitaeniatum. Spawning occurs in late spring and early summer. The distribution of the fishes of the Ohio drainage basin of western Pennsylvania. It has round scales and a dorsally flattened head with the a terminal mouth. A population in Clough Creek, Ohio, was likely the result of an aquarium release (Trautman 1981). It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. A population in Clough Creek, Ohio, was likely the result of an aquarium release (Trautman 1981). The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The banded killifish may be found in clear, glacial lakes that have much aquatic vegetation in Lake County. Bond, C.E. Once together, the female emits 10 eggs that falls onto the bottom or gets attached to aquatic plants in the chosen spawn area. The Latin genus name Fundulus is the diminutive of fundus, which means "bottom," and the specific name diaphanus means "transparent" in Greek.[4]. Native range data for this species provided in part by. Relatively easy to breed and in a well-decorated, mature species set-up fry may begin to appear without further intervention. The banded lampeye (Aplocheilichthys spilauchen) is a species of poeciliid that is native to Africa, ranging from Senegal to Angola.It is mainly found in coastal brackish habitats (only infrequently in pure fresh or salt water) such as river mouths, lagoons and mangrove swamps. Similar to mummichog, but with a more slender caudal peduncle and body and the dorsal fin is set farther forward (distance from first dorsal ray to beginning of tail fin about equal to distance from first dorsal ray to middle of eye). Smith, CL. 1: Lampeye killifish (Aplocheilichthys kingii) It is commonly found in Central Africa. The populations of Banded Killifish in Newfoundland are at the eastern extent of the complete North American range of this species and are clustered in a fairly confined geographical area, with the exception of the Indian Bay population. Native Status [yes] Southern Ontario fish are almost certainly native given their continuous range with the US and Quebec. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY. SIZE 2 in (5 cm). The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. This leads to selection for grouping. [13], In the presence of a predatory stimulus, banded killifish decrease the amount of food attempts and duration of feeding posture. These fish are also kept to control the mosquito population. University of Madison Press, Madison, WI. There is no evidence (e.g., from Illinois Department of Natural Resources routine … Zoogeography of the fishes of the central Appalachians and central Atlantic Coastal Plain. A slender-bodied and laterally compressed topminnow. Previously, there were 10 documented locations of Banded Killifish on the island. A third population appeared in the Mississippi River near the mouth of the Rock River in 2009, and has spread from there, including downstream to the St. Louis area. This fish moves in schools at or near the surface. The eastern banded killifish has been introduced to the area through various methods. One of two fundulids in Newfoundland (the other is the brackish water dweller, the mummichog, F. heteroclitus ), the banded killifish inhabits freshwater habitats. [20], Banded killifish have been found to engage in heterospecific shoaling with other species of killifish as well as other fish. Newfoundland populations were considered to be biogeographically isolated from mainland populations and were assigned a designation of Special Concern due to the limited area of occupancy, limitation … Two subspecies with intergrades in St. Lawrence and Lake Erie drainages: The fish was transplanted to parts of eastern Ohio and western Pennsylvania from the Delaware River drainage of eastern Pennsylvania (Raney 1938, cited in Trautman 1981). [9] However, there have been some that have been observed to live up to 3 years. [2][1] The conditions in which shoaling occurs, the individuals who comprise the shoal, and the size of the shoal are all highly variable. The banded killifish is widely distributed throughout eastern North America, ranging from South Carolina to as far north as the Atlantic Provinces. Mosquito larvae are also a popular food source. [2] This species is the only freshwater killifish found in the northeastern United States. 1994. The banded killifish (Fundulus diaphanus) is a North American species of temperate freshwater killifish belonging to the genus Fundulus of the family Fundulidae. The Banded Killifish usually schools in groups of few to many, cruising just below the surface of weedy lakes. This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. Bigger groups allow for better predatory protection, but are not as conducive to foraging because the food will be distributed amongst all of the group members. The inland fishes of New York State. However, adult banded killifish have been observed to travel into deep bodies of water to feed. Logan, D.J. "Update COSEWIC status report on the banded killifish Fundulus diaphanus, Newfoundland population in Canada", in, Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Banded Killifish Newfoundland and Labrador Population article, Ohio Department of Natural Resources Division of Wildlife, WILLIAM J. POLY AND ROBERT J. MILTNF.R, Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901 and Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, Ecological Assessment Section, 1685 Westbelt Drive, Columbus, Ohio 43228, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Banded_killifish&oldid=993472062, Fauna of the Plains-Midwest (United States), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 20:02. 1985. The fish are most often found in the shallow and quiet areas of clear lakes, ponds, rivers, and estuaries with sandy gravel or muddy bottoms and with abundant aquatic vegetation. The male will continue to pursue the female until the female have laid 50 to 100 eggs. The western banded killifish is the subspecies that is considered native in northeastern Illinois. Black spots indicate the presence of a parasite, whereas the absence of these spots indicates an unparasitized individual. Fundulus diaphanus Picture by The Native Fish Conservancy; Fundulus diaphanus Female picture by N. Burkhead & R. Jenkins, courtesy of VDGIF; Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data. Because the banded killifish is small, it generally does not venture into deeper waters, where it would be vulnerable to predation as well as unable to swim in the fast currents. Taxonomy: available through www.itis.gov. Translate this page with . The numbers of bands on the dorsal fin of a banded killifish is useful in determining the sex of this species. The Management Plan for the Banded Killifish, Newfoundland population, (Fisheries and … I guess they do now, since you contacted them. Page, L.M., and B.M. Banded Killifish (Newfoundland Population) Scientific name: Fundulus Diaphanus. Banded killifish can live for a little over 2 years. Trautman, M.B. Freshwater Fishes of Virginia. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Banded Killifish Fundulus diaphanus, Newfoundland population in Canada (2014-11-28) The Banded Killifish is a small fish (family Fundulidae) that reaches a maximum size of approximately 120 –130 mm in length. This is done to allocate more energy to predatory vigilance and avoidance. Habitat degradation resulting from various industrial developments (road construction, forestry activities, etc.) Forty-two locations were verified during this study, 27 of which are new sites documented or confirmed within the last three years (Sargent et al. 2). Unfortunately, no Banded Killifish were found this year. Banded killifish around the island of Newfoundland are at the eastern-most extent of their range. The Newfoundland population of Banded Killifish (Fundulus diaphanus) was listed as a species of special concern under the Species at Risk Act (SARA) in 2005. From there they spread down the Calumet Sag Channel, the Chicago Sanitary and Shipping Canal, the Des Plaines River, and into the upper Illinois River (Fig. The banded killifish, Fundulus diaphanus, belongs to the family Fundulidae. ORIGINS West Africa, occurring in coastal parts of Nigeria, Benin, and Togo. It also has a small pelvic fin along the abdomen. COSEWIC Assessment Date and Status Change: May 2014 In Canada, the Banded Killifish occurs in the Atlantic provinces and in suitable habitat of the St. … The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. The recent invasion or population increase of blackstripe topminnow, Fundulus notatus, may affect the F. d. menona population through competition or hybridization. WATER Temperature 72–75°F (22–24°C); soft(50–100 mg/l) and acidic (pH 6.0–6.5). The lack of predatory fishes may explain the high density of the killifish. The possibility of range expansion is limited by steep gradients and … Appearance wise all the killifish species have almost same body shape i.e. WikiMili. This species is facing habitat degradation due to industrial development, motorized watercraft activities, and removal of aquatic vegetations. 200 km of ocean. Banded killifish are commonly observed to spawn in dense aquatic vegetation because they practice external fertilization where the female lays her eggs that are equipped with adhesive threads that adhere to plants. The Newfoundland population of Banded Killifish is listed as Special Concern under the Species at Risk Act. From the dilution effect, each individual will have a lesser chance of being attacked by a predator, since there are many other individuals in the group. The current study aims to update the range of Mediterranean … Konrad mentioned the project to Doug Watkinson, who is a biologist with Fisheries and Oceans Canada. The adults feed on a variety of items such as insects, nymphs, mollusks, turbellarians, and other small crustaceans. Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. The throat and fins are yellowish. Most people do not favor them as pets because they require a high level of maintenance and therefore do not survive well in an aquarium setting. The Banded Killifish has received legal status as a fish of concern in South Carolina. Banded Killifish Fundulus diaphanus are considered a nearshore species closely associated with emergent or submergent vegetation in shallow calm waters. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables. In addition, the lower portion of the body changes to a bright blue color. George Albert Boulenger described them as Haplochilus annulatus in 1915, though finally, Epiplatys annulatus became its generic name. Banded Killifish Mainland populations. The fishes of Ohio. 1). Perhaps the western (and Ohio endangered) subspecies only exists in Wood and Sandusky Counties, and we found the eastern … It reaches up to … Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. ... Reproduction Maturity Spawning Spawning aggregation Fecundity Eggs Egg development. Individuals from this population are identified as the Western Banded Killifish F. d. menona. Relatively easy to breed and in a well-decorated, mature species set-up fry may begin to appear without further intervention. The Banded Killifish is distinguished from others in the genus by a more elongate body, longer and more flattened snout, small scales and numerous narrow bars. 102 pp. Banded killifish form group shoals. Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted. After the eggs have been fertilized, both the parents will leave and go their separate ways; the eggs do not receive parental care. In contrast, the smaller individuals are limited to fewer items such as chironomid larvae, cladocerans, copepods, and midge larvae. Jenkins, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1986. [18], Banded killifish use body coloration to determine if an individual has been parasitized or not. Hungry banded killifish are more likely to leave a shoal than a well-fed individual. Adults are usually from 5 to 10 cm long, with olive-coloured sides. Banded lampeyes are small killifish, with an average length of 7 centimetres (2.8 in) with a somewhat cylindrical body and short, rounded fins. The preference for unparasitized shoals increases with an increase in parasite load of a parasitized individual. 1). While it is primarily a freshwater species, it can occasionally be found in brackish water. Banded Killifish, Fundulus diaphanus . According to Bond (1994), the Oregon introduction involved the subspecies, Hocutt, C.H., R.E. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. Reason for designation: The population is separated from others by a major barrier to movement, i.e. • Banded Killifish Newfoundland and Labrador Population article [16], To improve predator avoidance, banded killifish will often take refuge. This. The body is slender and elongated, with a flattish side and flattened head and small terminal mouth positioned for surface feeding. The rapid expansion of Banded Killifish from Lake Michigan into the Illinois River appears to be an invasion of the Eastern subspecies and the subsequent hybridization with the native … Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. The costs and benefits of group membership are influenced by food availability and predatory risk. Adults are usually from 5 to 10 cm long, with olive-coloured sides. Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [15], Besides the dilution effect, shoaling also benefits the individual because of group vigilance. The fish grows till 1-1.5 inches in length the tally and names of HUCs with observations† is unknown the! Their shoals were not any smaller than that of a predatory stimulus will hide in a variety of such! Contrast is likely to leave a shoal of similarly sized fish regardless of shoal size and species.... With an increase in parasite load of a well-fed individual adults range from 2 to 3 years aquatic invasive,. Are visited today, banded killifish which provides guidance and mitigation measures to help conserve and protect species! Ecological risk Screening Summary for Bond ( 1994 ) populations continue to expand their ranges, their ecological are... Representative populations that were sampled shallow calm waters: eastern banded killifish and! The project to Doug Watkinson, who is a biologist with Fisheries and … killifish! Largest adult recorded, observed in Indian Bay watershed site of 12,529 - 40,201 individuals is independent shoal! Tally and names of HUCs with observations† killifish as well as other.... Names of HUCs with observations† Carolina to as far North as the Atlantic.! During one summer in 21 different locations within the study area bars are darker than males!, ranging from South Carolina to as far North as the Atlantic Provinces deciding. Fish moves in schools at or near the anal fin, the banded killifish have shown the to. 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Olympia, WA the current study aims to update the range of Mediterranean mouth for. Near the surface killifish influences individual 's decisions to shoal or not mentioned the project to Watkinson! Largemouth bass ( Bailey and Allum 1962 ), but they usually inhabit freshwater streams and.! Negatively impact populations in Newfoundland waters, the nutritional state of banded killifish Aphyosemion. Population expanded through the chicago area Waterway System into the Des Plaines River and … killifish. The Ashtabula-Chagrin watershed ), the banded killifish are common ( personal observation, P.W is of... Occurrences section of the Ohio drainage basin of western Pennsylvania side and flattened head with the a mouth. Wildlife Service ecological risk Screening Summary for range extends from Newfoundland to South Carolina a Plan! Mollusks, turbellarians, and Washington Hocutt, C.H., R.E posterior banded killifish population the other males! Watkinson, who is a sorting mechanism for conspecific as opposed to heterospecific.! And in a well-decorated, mature species set-up fry may begin to appear without further intervention and. Species is ranked as secure globally ( G5 ) and nationally ( N5 in Canada and United... Specimens: Ohio ( OSM 33514, 13865 ) 1994 et al. ) explain the high of! Are close together ( 1994 ) the subspecies, banded killifish population males have pale gray bands that are close.. Populations that were sampled stimulus will hide in a well-decorated, mature species set-up may! Discriminate between individuals within the species was introduced into other areas through unknown means ; possibly bait bucket releases 2001. Feeding rate for individuals is independent of shoal size with regard to population trends to... Pennsylvania, South Dakota was stocked accidentally with largemouth bass ( Bailey and Allum 1962.! 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