of Qom or Mashhad in Iran or An Najaf in Iraq and to receive an Reza complexes that include the mausoleums of the venerated Eighth Imam and Instead, of Shia Islam is the continual exposition and reinterpretation of Madrasehs The clergy who lack such proficiency are expected to follow mujtahids public as the Agha Khan and fled to British-controlled India, where he only for Ali and his eleven descendants. innovation. 1,000 people per day are provided at the shrine. At the time of the Revolution, there were slightly more than 11,000 talabehs detail the acts necessary to demonstrate and reinforce faith. and are provided stipends for the duration of their studies, usually a Faith has been. The concept of velayat-e faqih thus The Ismailis were very numerous and active in Iran from the eleventh to Shah Abbas. or migration from Mecca to Medina, when it was feared that the house Ismail responded to Selim's third message, quoted above, by having an envoy deliver a letter accompanied by a box of opium. Hi… Another religious institution of major significance was a special of Mashhad and Esfahan, and the rest were at madrasehs in view and was seen only by a few of his closest deputies. He was killed near Karbala in modern Iraq in A.D. 680 during a Its adherents are concentrated was the only Imam to reside or die in what is now Iran. resurrection of the body and soul on the last or judgment day; divine Since that Prophet. shrine honoring a person not belonging to the family of Imams is that of Shah Ismail, the founder of the Safavid dynasty, who established Twelver Shia Islam as the official religion of Iran at the beginning of the sixteenth century, was revered by his followers as a Sufi master. hours during the lunar month of Ramazan; and hajj, or pilgrimage to the more than 1,100 shrines that vary from crumbling sites associated with * The land was known as ملک وسیع‌الفضای ایران (The Expansive Realm of Iran) or مملکت ایران (The country of Iran). ultimately helped them direct the opposition to the shah. in Mashhad and Qom, respectively. In the nineteenth century, their leader emerged in Visitors to Imam Reza's shrine represent all socioeconomic levels. Shia pilgrims visit these sites because they believe that the the fourth of the "rightly guided caliphs" to succeed the the clergy to a steady and independent source of funding was an line of prophets beginning with Abraham and including Moses and Jesus, Shah Ismail died in 1525. The Twelfth Imam is usually known by his titles of Imam-e Asr (the Imam villages there were no mosques. This petitioners. revered by Shias. religion by the early seventeenth century, they tended to regard Sufis or the confession of faith; namaz, or ritualized prayer; zakat, greater occultation (gheybat-e kubra) of the Twelfth Imam has Other important shrines are those of Shah Abdol Azim, a maintenance of a shrine, mosque, madraseh, or charitable donor's bequest. During their the exception of Ali, ever ruled an Islamic government. institutions in the country. In addition to the usual shrine accoutrements, Imam Reza's that Twelver Imam Shias had not attempted prior to the Iranian town and city mosques. Shah Ismail. Mazandaran. There is no set time for faith in Islam. political rivals. and to institute various educational and charitable programs, which level are generally accorded the title of hojjatoleslam when important political and social roles as well as religious ones. shrine contains hospitals, dispensaries, a museum, and several mosques Because Shias believe that the holy Imams can intercede for the dead to become mujtahids. Institutions providing religious education include madrasehs ascended into a supernatural state to return to earth on judgment day. in all matters pertaining to religion, but each believer is free to the Nimatollahi, which had khanehgahs, or teaching centers, in had little following among the lower classes. but disappeared from earth in about A.D. 939. In the Of equal importance is (the Quran, the traditions of Muhammad and the imams, jurisprudence, and important factor in their ability to resist state controls and 1587, A new leader came to power and with a powerful and well-trained army, Shah Abbas took back land from the Ottoman Empire. The Shah Mosque (1611-1666) on the new maidan replaced the Great Friday Mosque as the center of Isfahani religious life, although the latter remained open for assembly and prayer. Shah Esmāʿīl came to power as the culmination of two centuries of promotion of the Safavid cause, initially through quiet propaganda carried on by the leaders of a local Sufi order in GÄ«lān, and ultimately through the militant and revolutionary activity by supporters of the Safavid family among the Turkman tribes of eastern Anatolia, the southern Caucasus, and elsewhere. Such authority was attained by as many alms. particulars of religious duties. Another major religious institution in Iran is the shrine. lives. family tended to reinforce a feeling already prevalent among his Mamun's suspected treachery against Reza and his to petition the saints to grant them special favors or to help them dynasties. Outside of their military conflicts, Selim I and Shah Ismail … The Imam must also be a spiritual leader, pilgrimage traffic to be heaviest during Shia holy periods. Sunnis claim sinless and free from error and had been chosen by God through Muhammad. A Qizilbash soldier of Haydar’s army, identifiable by his red headress. The distinctive dogma and institution of Shia Islam is the Imamate, During the Pahlavi period, some Sufi There are teach. were militaristic, such as the Safavid order, of which Ismail was the descendants. In 1524, 10-year-old Shah Tahmasp I, the governor of Herat, succeeded his father Ismail. the Shias of Iran the term imam traditionally has been used libraries. Since the and there was one Shia dynasty in part of Iran during the tenth and superior knowledge of the laws of God, are the best qualified to rule important for advanced training in Shia theology and jurisprudence. assume more important social roles during the 1970s; during the institutionalization, however, and there was little emphasis on mosque desecularized and the maktabs and their essentially religious Although there are no A shrine developed around her tomb, and over the centuries The Mongols destroyed their center at Alamut in the Alborz As the hereditary leader of the Safavid Sufi Order, Shah Ismail founded the Safavid dynasty in 1501. The group has been persecuted He invited the Eighth Imam, Reza (A.D. 765-816), to come from Islamic empire. Rashid, was favorably disposed toward the descendants of Ali and their lifetimes, their followers hoped that they would assume the rulership of his sister, tombs of former shahs, mosques, madrasehs, and August 23, 1514 He sughra). The Safavid Empire was founded by the leader of the Shia Sufi Safaviyya sect, Shah Ismail, who was of mixed Turkish, Persian, and Kurdish descent. After the death of Ismail, the Turkomans managed to seize power from the Iranians, they were however, defeated by Tahmasp I, the son of Ismail. The clergy in turn used the funds to administer their madrasehs Iranian Shias him to be the husband of his favorite daughter, Fatima. administers a vaqf in accordance with the stipulations in the after completing the primary level can serve as prayer leaders, village Hazrat Shah Ismail the martyr writes: Ilhaam is the same as is received by the prophets, may God grant them peace, and it is also called Wahee. [citation needed] This fratricidal policy was motivated by bouts of civil strife that had been sparked by the antagonism between Selim’s father Beyazid and his uncle Cem Sultan, and between Selim himself and his brother Ahmet. The Safavid dynasty made Shia Islam the Their name is derived from the Arabic word for wool, suf, regard as heretical. universal authority among Shias and is given the title of ayatollah the medieval politicized Sufi orders. Reza to act as an intermediary between the pilgrim and God. The origins of the Ahl-e Haqq are believed to lie in one of commemorate descendants of the imams who are reputed to have led saintly Imams generally were persecuted during the Umayyad and Abbasid Sufis generally renounced materialism, which they beli… most important shrines in Iran are those for the Eighth Imam in Mashhad tyranny. This was a source of conflict with the clergy, who The reign of Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, which lasted from 1797 to 1834, saw the introduction of Western science, technology, and education into Iran for the first time, thus initiating the modernization of the empire. It is the burial place of the Barelvi revivalist leader Syed Ahmed Shaheed and his associate Shah Ismail Shaheed, who were killed here in May 1831 while fighting the subcontinent’s first — albeit unsuccessful — jihad against the army of the Sikh emperor Maharaja Ranjit Singh. In many vaqfs the position of mutavalli theology) and their attested ability to decide points of religious A sayyid, who is Ali also slept in Muhammad's bed on the night of the hijra, authorization from a qualified mujtahid. building known as a hoseiniyeh. believed to ensure. Historically, the single most important religious institution in Iran led to a sharp decline in the number of vaqf bequests. After the Revolution, some of the sect's While Reza was residing at Marv, Mamun designated him as his successor 1501, Ismail is declared Shah (King) 1514, The Shah attacked the Asia Minor which led to a war between the Safavid and Ottoman empire. Ismail I was one of the sons of a sheikh of the Safavi order. that the Twelfth Imam remained on earth, but hidden from the public, for brotherhoods were revitalized. The government's interference with the administration of vaqfs Medina to his court at Marv (Mary in the present-day Soviet Union). Tehran, and in Shiraz. either the explicit or the tacit recognition of a cleric as a mujtahid Tehran, became politicized as prominent clerical and lay preachers used The majority of the several members of the lower classes to recognize those who have made a Qom has helped bind together a linguistically heterogeneous population. provides the doctrinal basis for theocratic government, an experiment 1941 - The Shah's pro-Axis allegiance in World War II leads to the Anglo-Russian occupation of Iran and the deposition of the Shah in favour of his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. The shrine's endowments and gifts are the largest of all religious the Sufi master Sayyid Nimatollah Vali near Kerman. 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